Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of UsersGuideEn


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Timestamp:
Mar 30, 2011, 7:37:33 AM (7 years ago)
Author:
alan
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Initial Version, Needs updates and fixes

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  • UsersGuideEn

    v1 v1  
     1
     2== Parsix GNU/Linux User's Guide ==
     3
     4{{{
     5#!html
     6<p class="question" align="left">Revision
     7        1.4.2 (Last updated on Feb 13 2009) <br><br>Author: Mehdi Hasanpour<br>Fixes and Additions: Alan Baghumian, Ali Yousefi<br><br>
     8
     9This document is based on <a href="http://www.hezardastan.org/ubuntu5.04">Ubuntu User's Guide</a>.</p>
     10<h2 align="left"><a name="disclaimer"></a>Disclaimer</h2><p>
     11This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the <a href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html" target="_blank">GNU General Public License</a> as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
     12<br><br>
     13This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
     14WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     15MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the <a href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html" target="_blank">GNU General Public License</a> for more details.
     16                </p>
     17
     18        <h2 align="left"><a name="generalnotes"></a>General Notes‌</h2>
     19        <ol>
     20                <li><p align="left">Guide is tested on a full installation of the Parsix GNU/Linux 2.0-TEST1 (codename: BOSS).
     21               
     22                </p>
     23                </li><li><p align="left">If you see black box, means you have to execute the commands in Terminal mode (Applications -&gt; Accessories -&gt; Terminal).
     24               
     25                </p>
     26                </li><li><p align="left">To reduce typo mistakes, copy and paste the commands into Terminal mode (right click on the commands -&gt; "Copy" or "Paste").
     27               
     28                </p>
     29
     30                </li><li><p align="left">If you are tired of typing "apt-get" all the time, Read <a href="#synaptic">How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)?</a>
     31                </p>
     32                </li><li><p align="left">"apt-get" and "wget" requires Internet connection to install/update/download programs.
     33               
     34                </p>
     35                </li><li><p align="left">Commands
     36starting with a $ charachter indicate that need to be typed as a normal
     37user and commands starting with # charachter indicate that need to be
     38typed as root user.</p>
     39                </li><li><p align="left">To download file, right click on the link -&gt; Select "Save Link As..." -&gt; Make sure file name and extension are correct.
     40                </p>
     41
     42                </li><li><p align="left">For any feedbacks, suggestions, discussions and bugs report to the author, please send email to docs AT parsix DOT org.               
     43                </p>
     44                </li><li><p align="left">This page is optimized to be used with the <a href="http://fpf.sf.net/">FreeFarsi</a> font. This font comes with Parsix GNU/Linux CD-ROM.
     45                </p>
     46        </li></ol>
     47        <hr>
     48        <h2 align="left"><a name="topics"></a>Topics</h2>
     49        <hr>
     50
     51        <h3 align="left"><a href="#gettingstarted">Getting Started</a></h3>
     52        <ol>
     53                <li><p align="left"><a href="#whatisparsix">What's Parsix GNU/Linux?</a>
     54                </p>
     55                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#viewparsixscreenshots">Where to view Parsix GNU/Linux screenshots?</a>
     56                </p>
     57                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#findprogramslibrarieslistparsix">Where to find a list of all the programs/libraries that comes with Parsix GNU/Linux?</a>
     58                </p>
     59
     60                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#downloadparsix">Where to download Parsix GNU/Linux?</a>
     61                </p>
     62                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#orderparsixcds">Where to order Parsix GNU/Linux CDs?</a>
     63                </p>
     64                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#findhelpparsix">Where to find Parsix GNU/Linux Documentation?</a>
     65                </p>
     66                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#parsixpass">What's Parsix GNU/Linux's user and root passwords in live mode?</a>
     67                </p>
     68
     69                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#parsixbugs">Where to report Parsix GNU/Linux Bugs?</a>
     70                </p>
     71
     72        </li></ol>
     73        <h3 align="left"><a href="#gettingparsixguide">Getting Parsix GNU/Linux User's Guide</a></h3>
     74        <ol>
     75                <li><p align="left"><a href="#downloadguide">Where to download this entire Parsix GNU/Linux guide?</a>
     76                </p>
     77        </li></ol>
     78
     79        <h3 align="left"><a href="#repositories">Repositories</a></h3>
     80        <ol>
     81                <li><p align="left"><a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a>
     82                </p>
     83                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#backuprestoredownloadedrepositoriescache">How to backup/restore downloaded repositories cache?</a>
     84                </p>
     85        </li></ol>
     86        <h3 align="left"><a href="#parsixupdates">Parsix GNU/Linux Updates</a></h3>
     87
     88        <ol>
     89                <li><p align="left"><a href="#manualupdate">How to manually update Parsix GNU/Linux?</a>
     90                </p>
     91        </li></ol>
     92        <h3 align="left"><a href="#add-onapplications">Add-On Applications</a></h3>
     93        <ol>
     94                <li><p align="left"><a href="#codecs">How to install extra multimedia codecs?</a>
     95                </p>                   
     96                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#easytag">How to install Easy TAG ID3 tag editor?</a>
     97
     98                </p>
     99                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#audacity">How to install Audacity sound editor?</a>
     100                </p>
     101                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#dvdrip">How to install dvd::rip DVD Ripper?</a>
     102                </p>
     103                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#goobox">How to install Goobox CD Ripper?</a>
     104                </p>
     105                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#scribus">How to install Scribus desktop publishing software?</a>
     106                </p>
     107
     108                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#dia">How to install Dia diagram and flow chart editor?</a>
     109                </p>
     110                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#nessus">How to install Nessus security tool?</a>
     111                </p>
     112                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#gdesklets">How to install gDesklets Desktop Applets tool?</a>
     113                </p>                   
     114                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#anjuta">How to install Anjuta IDE?</a>
     115                </p>
     116                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#blender">How to install Blender 3D modeller/renderer?</a>
     117                </p>
     118
     119                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#stell">How to install Stellarium sky generator?</a>
     120                </p>
     121                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#kde">How to install KDE desktop environment?</a>
     122                </p>
     123                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#xfce">How to install xFce desktop environment?</a>
     124                </p>
     125                </li></ol>
     126        <h3 align="left"><a href="#usersadministration">Users Administration</a></h3>
     127
     128        <ol>
     129                <li><p align="left"><a href="#setchangeenablerootpassword">How to set/change/enable root user password?</a>
     130                </p>
     131                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#disablerootaccount">How to disable root user account?</a>
     132                </p>
     133                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#allowrootlogingnome">How to allow root user to login into GNOME?</a>
     134                </p>
     135                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#switchtoroot">How to switch to root user in Console mode?</a>
     136                </p>
     137
     138                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#addeditdeletesystemusers">How to add/edit/delete system users?</a>
     139                </p>
     140                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#addeditdeletesystemgroups">How to add/edit/delete system groups?</a>
     141                </p>
     142                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#automaticlogingnome">How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)?</a>
     143                </p>
     144                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changefilesfolderspermissions">How to change files/folders permissions?</a>
     145                </p>
     146
     147                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changefilesfoldersownership">How to change files/folders ownership?</a>
     148                </p>
     149                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changefilesfoldersgroupownership">How to change files/folders group ownership?</a>
     150                </p>
     151        </li></ol>
     152        <h3 align="left"><a href="#hardware">Hardware</a></h3>
     153        <ol>
     154                <li><p align="left"><a href="#installnvidiadriver">How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)?</a>
     155                </p>
     156
     157                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#disablenvidialogo">How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup?</a>
     158                </p>
     159                <li><p align="left"><a href="#installatidriver">How to install Graphics Driver (ATI)?</a>
     160                </p>
     161                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#listpartitiontables">How to list partition tables?</a>
     162                </p>
     163                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#listfilesystemdiskspaceusage">How to list filesystem disk space usage?</a>
     164                </p>
     165                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#listmounteddevices">How to list mounted devices?</a>
     166                </p>
     167
     168                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#listpcidevices">How to list PCI devices?</a>
     169                </p>
     170                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#listusbdevices">How to list USB devices?</a>
     171                </p>
     172                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#mountunmountcddvdromunhide">How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders?</a>
     173                </p>
     174                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#unmountcddvdromforcefully">How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually?</a>               
     175                </p>
     176                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#remountfstabwithoutreboot">How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?</a>         
     177                </p>
     178
     179        </li></ol>
     180        <h3 align="left"><a href="#cddvdburning">CD/DVD Burning</a></h3>
     181        <ol>
     182                <li><p align="left"><a href="#blankcdrwdvdrw">How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW?</a>
     183                </p>
     184                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#burnfilesfolderscddvd">How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD?</a>
     185                </p>
     186                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#burnisocddvd">How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD?</a>
     187                </p>
     188
     189                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#duplicatecddvd">How to duplicate CD/DVD?</a>
     190                </p>
     191                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#createisofromcddvd">How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD?</a>
     192                </p>
     193                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#createisofromfolders">How to create Image (ISO) files from folders?</a>
     194                </p>
     195                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#generatemd6">How to generate MD5 checksum files?</a>         
     196                </p>
     197                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#checkmd6">How to check MD5 checksum of files?</a>
     198                </p>
     199
     200                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#mountunmountcddvdromunhide">How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning?</a>
     201                </p>
     202                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#setchangeburnspeedcddvdburner">How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner?</a>
     203                </p>
     204                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#enableburnproofcddvdburner">How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner?</a>
     205                </p>
     206                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#enableoverburncddvdburner">How to enable overburn for CD/DVD? Burner?</a>
     207                </p>
     208        </li></ol>
     209
     210        <h3 align="left"><a href="#networking">Networking</a></h3>
     211        <ol>
     212                <li><p align="left"><a href="#activatedeactivatenetworkconnections">How to activate/deactivate network connections?</a>
     213               
     214                </p>
     215                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#configurenetworkconnections">How to configure network connections?</a>
     216                </p>
     217                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#configuredialup">How to configure dialup connections?</a>
     218                </p>
     219
     220                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#configurebroadband">How to configure broadband connections?</a>
     221                </p>
     222                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changecomputername">How to change computer name?</a>
     223                </p>
     224                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changecomputerdescriptions">How to change computer descriptions?</a>
     225                </p>
     226                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changecomputerdomainworkgroup">How to change computer Domain/Workgroup?</a>
     227                </p>
     228               
     229                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#sharefolderstheeasyway">How to share folders the easy way?</a>
     230                </p>
     231
     232                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#browsenetworkcomputers">How to browse network computers?</a>
     233                </p>
     234                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#accessnetworkfolderswihoutmount">How to access network folders without mounting?</a>
     235                </p>
     236                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#mountunmountnetworkfolders">How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read?</a>         
     237                </p>
     238                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#mountunmountnetworkfoldersall">How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write?</a>
     239                </p>
     240                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#automountnetworkfolders">How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read?</a>           
     241                </p>
     242
     243                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#automountnetworkfolders">How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write?</a>
     244                </p>
     245        </li></ol>
     246        <h3 align="left"><a href="#remotedesktop">Remote Desktop</a></h3>
     247        <ol>
     248                <li><p align="left"><a href="#configureremotedesktop">How to configure remote desktop (not secure)?</a>
     249                </p>
     250                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#vncfromparsix">How to connect into remote Parsix GNU/Linux desktop?</a>             
     251                </p>
     252
     253                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#vncfromwindows">How to connect into remote Parsix GNU/Linux desktop via Windows machine?</a>
     254                </p>
     255        </li></ol>
     256        <h3 align="left"><a href="#windows">Windows</a></h3>
     257        <ol>
     258                <li><p align="left"><a href="#mountunmountntfs">How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only?</a>
     259                </p>
     260                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#mountunmountfat">How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write?</a>
     261                </p>
     262
     263                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#automountntfs">How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only?</a>
     264                </p>
     265                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#automountfat">How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write?</a>
     266                </p>
     267        </li></ol>
     268        <h3 align="left"><a href="#security">Security</a></h3>
     269        <ol>
     270                <li><p align="left"><a href="#basicsecuringparsix">What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Parsix GNU/Linux?</a>
     271                </p>           
     272                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#disablehistorylistingconsole">How to disable history listing in Console mode?</a>
     273                </p>
     274
     275                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#promptbeforeremovaloverwrittenconsole">How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode?</a>
     276                </p>
     277        </li></ol>
     278        <h3 align="left"><a href="#tipsntricks">Tips &amp; Tricks</a></h3>
     279        <ol>           
     280                <p></p>
     281                <li><p align="left"><a href="#restartgnomewithoutreboot">How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?</a>
     282                </p>
     283
     284                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#runprogramsstartupgnome">How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME?</a>
     285                </p>
     286                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#switchtoconsole">How to switch to Console mode in GNOME?</a>
     287                </p>
     288                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#disablectrlaltbackspacegnome">How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME?</a>
     289                </p>
     290                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#enablectrlaltdelopensystemmonitorgnome">How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME?</a>
     291                </p>
     292                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#refreshgnomedesktop">How to refresh GNOME desktop?</a>               
     293                </p>
     294
     295                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#refreshgnomepanel">How to refresh GNOME panel?</a>           
     296                </p>
     297                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#openeachfolderssamewindownautilus">How to open each folder in the same window in Nautilus?</a>
     298                </p>
     299                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#showallhiddenfilesfoldersnautilus">How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus?</a>
     300                </p>
     301                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changedefaultfiletypeprogram">How to change default file type "Open with" program?</a>
     302                </p>
     303                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changepreferredemailthunderbird">How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird?</a>
     304                </p>
     305
     306                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#disablebeepsoundterminalmode">How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode?</a>
     307                </p>
     308                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#loadwebsitefasterfirefox">How to tune up GNU Iceweasel's performance?</a>
     309                </p>
     310                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#disablebeepsoundlinkfindfirefox">How to disable beep sound for link find function in GNU Iceweasel?</a>             
     311                </p>
     312                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#synaptic">How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)?</a>               
     313                </p>
     314                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#installuninstalldebfile">How to install/uninstall .deb files?</a>
     315                </p>
     316
     317                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#convertrpmtodebfile">How to convert .rpm files to .deb files?</a>
     318                </p>
     319                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#mvb">How to rename all files in directory at once?</a>
     320                </p>
     321                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#bbips">How to manipulate all image files in directory at once?</a>           
     322                </p>
     323                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#setsystem-wideenvironmentvariables">How to set System-wide Environment Variables?</a>
     324                </p>
     325                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#savemanoutputs">How to save "man" outputs into files?</a>
     326                </p>
     327
     328                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#hidegrub">How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up?</a>             
     329                </p>
     330                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changetimeoutgrub">How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up?</a>
     331                </p>
     332                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changedefaultosgrub">How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu?</a>
     333                </p>
     334                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#temporaryskipboot-upservices">How to temporary skip boot-up services?</a>
     335                </p>
     336                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#permanentlydisableenableboot-upservices">How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services?</a>
     337
     338                </p>
     339                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#cleantmpfoldershutdown">How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown?</a>
     340                </p>
     341                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#scrollupdownconsole">How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode?</a>
     342                </p>
     343                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#geditauto">How to enable "auto save" feature in gedit and disable creating backup (some_file~) files?
     344                </a></p>
     345                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#nauadd1">How to temporary active nautilus location bar?</a>
     346
     347                </p>
     348                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#nauadd2">How to permanently active nautilus location bar?</a>
     349                </p>
     350        </li></ol>
     351        <h3 align="left"><a href="#sambaserver">Samba Server</a></h3>
     352        <ol>
     353                <li><p align="left"><a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a>
     354                </p>
     355
     356                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#addeditdeletenetworkusers">How to add/edit/delete network users?</a>         
     357                </p>
     358                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#sharehomefoldersreadsecurityuser">How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?</a>
     359                </p>
     360                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#sharehomefoldersreadwritesecurityuser">How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?</a>
     361                </p>
     362                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#sharegroupfoldersreadsecurityuser">How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?</a>
     363
     364                </p>
     365                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#sharegroupfoldersreadwritesecurityuser">How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?</a>
     366                </p>
     367                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#sharepublicfoldersreadsecurityuser">How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?</a>
     368                </p>
     369                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#sharepublicfoldersreadwritesecurityuser">How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?</a>
     370                </p>
     371
     372                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#sharepublicfoldersreadsecurityshare">How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)?</a>
     373                </p>
     374                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#sharepublicfoldersreadsecurityshare">How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)?</a>
     375                </p>
     376        </li></ol>
     377        <h3 align="left"><a href="#sshserver">SSH Server</a></h3>
     378        <ol>
     379
     380                <li><p align="left"><a href="#sshintoparsix">How to SSH into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine?</a>               
     381                </p>
     382                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#scpfromparsix">How to copy files/folders from remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine into local machine (scp)?</a>
     383                </p>
     384                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#scptoparsix">How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine (scp)?</a>
     385                </p>
     386                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#rsyncfromparsix">How to copy files/folders from remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine into local machine (rsync)?</a>
     387
     388                </p>
     389                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#rsynctoparsix">How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine (rsync)?</a>
     390                </p>
     391                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#sshfromwindows">How to SSH into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine via Windows machine?</a>             
     392                </p>
     393                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#scpfromwindows">How to copy files/folders from/into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine via Windows machine?</a>
     394                </p>
     395        </li></ol>
     396
     397        <h3 align="left"><a href="#dhcpserver">DHCP Server</a></h3>
     398        <ol>
     399                <li><p align="left"><a href="#installdhcpserver">How to install DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment?</a>         
     400                </p>
     401        </li></ol>
     402        <h3 align="left"><a href="#databaseserver">Database Server</a></h3>
     403        <ol>
     404                <li><p align="left"><a href="#installmysqldatabaseserver">How to install MYSQL Database Server?</a>
     405                </p>
     406
     407                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#installmysqlcontrolcenter">How to install MYSQL Control Center?</a>
     408                </p>
     409        </li></ol>
     410        <h3 align="left"><a href="#apachehttpserver">Apache HTTP Server</a></h3>
     411        <ol>
     412                <li><p align="left"><a href="#installapachehttpserver">How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?</a>
     413                </p>
     414                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#installphpapache">How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?</a>
     415                </p>
     416
     417                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#installmysqlapache">How to install MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server?</a>
     418                </p>
     419                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#mapURLstofoldersoutsidewww">How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/?</a>
     420                </p>
     421                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#changeportnumberapache">How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server?</a>
     422                </p>
     423                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#parserssintophpapache">How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server?</a>
     424                </p>
     425        </li></ol>
     426
     427        <h3 align="left"><a href="#troubleshooting">Troubleshooting</a></h3>
     428        <ol>
     429                <li><p align="left"><a href="#configuringnetwoktooslow">Configuring network interfaces... (taking too long to load)</a>
     430                </p>
     431                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#forcefullyemptytrash">How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME?</a>
     432                </p>
     433        </li></ol>
     434        <p align="left"><br>
     435
     436        </p>
     437        <hr>
     438        <h2 align="left"><a name="gettingstarted"></a>Getting Started</h2>
     439        <hr>
     440        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="whatisparsix"></a>What's Parsix GNU/Linux?</p>
     441        <ol>
     442                <li><p align="left">Parsix GNU/Linux is a live and installation CD based on <a href="http://www.kanotix.com">KANOTIX</a> and <a href="http://www.debian.org">Debian</a>.
     443It is a complete GNOME centric desktop oriented distribution. Beside of
     444the dozens supported languages, Parsix GNU/Linux supports Persian
     445keyboard and users can switch to Persian with Alt+Shift keys. You can
     446install and use Parsix GNU/Linux as your PC's operating system. We have
     447also included <a href="http://www.xfardic.org">xFarDic</a> multilingual dictionary and Persian free fonts from <a href="http://fpf.sf.net">FPF</a> project.</p>
     448
     449        </li></ol>
     450        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="viewparsixscreenshots"></a>Where to view Parsix GNU/Linux screenshots?</p>
     451        <ol>
     452                <li><p align="left"><a href="http://parsix.org/html/index.php?module=htmlpages&amp;func=display&amp;pid=6" onclick="window.open(this.href,'_blank');return false;">http://parsix.org/html/index.php?module=htmlpages&amp;func=display&amp;pid=6</a>
     453                                </p>
     454        </li></ol>
     455        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="findprogramslibrarieslistparsix"></a>Where to find a list of all the programs/libraries that comes with Parsix GNU/Linux?</p>
     456
     457        <ol>
     458                <li><p align="left">Type dpkg -l command or click <a href="sample/dpkg.list">here</a>.         
     459                </p>
     460                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="http://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=parsix" onclick="window.open(this.href,'_blank');return false;">http://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=parsix</a>
     461                                </p>
     462        </li></ol>
     463        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="downloadparsix"></a>Where to download Parsix GNU/Linux?</p>
     464
     465        <ol>
     466                <li><p align="left"><a href="http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=103427&amp;package_id=151593" onclick="window.open(this.href,'_blank');return false;">http://www.sourceforge.net</a>
     467                </p>
     468        </li></ol>
     469        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="orderparsixcds"></a>Where to order Parsix GNU/Linux CDs?</p>
     470        <ol>
     471<li><p align="left">To order Parsix GNU/Linux CDs, contact <a href="http://www.linuxshop.ir">www.linuxshop.ir</a>&nbsp;or&nbsp;<a href="http://www.sito.ir">www.sito.ir</a>.</p>               
     472        </li></ol>
     473
     474        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="findhelpparsix"></a>Where to find Parsix GNU/Linux Documentation?</p>
     475        <ol>
     476                <li><p align="left">Parsix
     477GNU/Linux documentation ships with its CD-ROM in /usr/share/doc/parsix/
     478path. You can get the latest versions of this documentation from
     479project's <a href="http://www.parsix.org">web site</a>.
     480                </p>
     481        </li></ol>
     482        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="parsixpass"></a>What's Parsix GNU/Linux's user and root passwords in live mode?</p>
     483        <ol>
     484
     485                <li><p align="left">Use "parsix" as user and root password of Parsix GNU/Linux system in live mode.</p>
     486        </li></ol>
     487        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="parsixbugs"></a>Where to report Parsix GNU/Linux Bugs?</p>
     488        <ol>
     489                <li><p align="left">Reporting Parsix GNU/Linux bugs helps us to make it better. Please report if you see any bug at <a href="http://bugs.parsix.org">http://bugs.parsix.org</a>.
     490                </p>
     491        </li></ol>
     492
     493        <p align="left"><br>
     494        </p>
     495        <hr>
     496        <h2 align="left"><a name="gettingparsixguide"></a>Getting Parsix GNU/Linux User's Guide</h2>
     497        <hr>
     498        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="downloadguide"></a>Where to download this entire Parsix GNU/Linux guide?</p>
     499        <ol>
     500                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     501
     502                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     503                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get update<br># apt-get install parsix-doc</pre>
     504        </li></ol>
     505        <p align="left"><br>
     506        </p>
     507        <hr>
     508        <h2 align="left"><a name="repositories"></a>Repositories</h2>
     509
     510        <hr>
     511        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="extrarepositories"></a>How to add extra repositories?</p>
     512        <ol>
     513                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     514                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     515                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup<br># vi /etc/apt/sources.list</pre>
     516
     517                </li><li><p align="left">remove # characters in front of following lines:</p>
     518                <pre class="file" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian testing main contrib non-free<br># deb-src http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian testing main contrib non-free</pre>
     519                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file.</p>
     520                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     521                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get update</pre>
     522        </li></ol>
     523
     524        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="backuprestoredownloadedrepositoriescache"></a>How to backup/restore downloaded repositories cache?</p>
     525        <ol>
     526                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     527                </li><li><p align="left">To backup downloaded repositories cache:</p>
     528                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># tar zcvf apt.tgz /etc/apt/ /var/lib/apt/ /var/cache/apt/</pre>
     529                </li><li><p align="left">To restore downloaded repositories cache:</p>
     530
     531                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># tar zxvf apt.tgz -C /</pre>
     532        </li></ol>
     533        <p><br>
     534        </p>
     535        <hr>
     536        <h2 align="left"><a name="parsixupdates"></a>Parsix GNU/Linux Updates</h2>
     537        <hr>
     538        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="manualupdate"></a>How to manually update Parsix GNU/Linux?</p>
     539
     540        <ol>
     541                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     542                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     543                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     544                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get update<br># apt-get dist-upgrade</pre>
     545
     546        </li></ol>
     547        <p><br>
     548        </p>
     549        <hr>
     550        <h2 align="left"><a name="add-onapplications"></a>Add-On Applications</h2>
     551        <hr>   
     552        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="codecs"></a>How to install extra multimedia codecs?</p>
     553        <ol>
     554
     555                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     556                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     557                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     558                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins<br># apt-get install gstreamer0.10-lame<br># apt-get install w32codecs<br># apt-get install libdivx4linux<br># apt-get install lame<br># apt-get install sox<br># apt-get install ffmpeg<br># apt-get install mjpegtools<br># apt-get install vorbis-tools<br></pre>
     559
     560        </li></ol>
     561       
     562        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="easytag"></a>How to install Easy TAG ID3 tag editor?</p>
     563        <ol>
     564                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     565                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     566                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     567
     568                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install easytag</pre>
     569                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#refreshgnomepanel"> How to refresh GNOME panel?</a>
     570                </p>
     571                </li><li><p align="left">Run it from Applications -&gt; Sound &amp; Video -&gt; EasyTAG.</p>
     572
     573        </li></ol>     
     574        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="audacity"></a>How to install Audacity sound editor?</p>
     575        <ol>
     576                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     577                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     578                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#codecs">How to install extra multimedia codecs?</a>
     579
     580                </p>
     581                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     582                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install audacity</pre>
     583                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#refreshgnomepanel"> How to refresh GNOME panel?</a>
     584                </p>
     585                </li><li><p align="left">Run it from Applications -&gt; Sound &amp; Video -&gt; Audacity.</p>
     586
     587        </li></ol>
     588        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="dvdrip"></a>How to install dvd::rip DVD Ripper?</p>
     589        <ol>
     590                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     591                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     592                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#codecs"> How to install extra multimedia codecs?</a></p>
     593
     594                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     595                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install dvdrip<br>#apt-get install vcdimager<br># apt-get install cdrdao<br># apt-get install subtitleripper<br># vi /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop</pre>
     596                </li><li><p align="left">In sert the following lines into the new file:</p>
     597                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">[Desktop Entry]<br>Name=dvd::rip<br>Comment=dvd::rip<br>Exec=dvdrip<br>Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm<br>Terminal=false<br>Type=Application<br>Categories=Application;AudioVideo;</pre>
     598
     599                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/dvdrip.desktop_dvdrip">Sample</a>)
     600               
     601                </p>
     602                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#refreshgnomepanel"> How to refresh GNOME panel?</a>
     603                </p>
     604                </li><li><p align="left">Run it from Applications
     605                -&gt; Sound &amp; Video -&gt; dvd::rip.</p>
     606
     607        </li></ol>
     608        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="goobox"></a>How to install Goobox CD Ripper?</p>
     609        <ol>
     610                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     611                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     612                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#codecs"> How to install extra multimedia codecs?</a></p>
     613
     614               
     615                <p></p>
     616                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     617                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install goobox<br># rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop<br># vi /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop</pre>
     618                </li><li><p align="left">In sert the following lines into the new file:</p>
     619                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">[Desktop Entry]<br>Name=CD Player &amp; Ripper<br>Comment=Play and extract CDs<br>Exec=goobox<br>Icon=goobox.png<br>Terminal=false<br>Type=Application<br>Categories=Application;AudioVideo;</pre>
     620
     621                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/goobox.desktop_goobox">Sample</a>)
     622               
     623                </p>
     624                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#refreshgnomepanel"> How to refresh GNOME panel?</a></p>
     625                </li><li><p align="left">Run it from Applications
     626                -&gt; Sound &amp; Video -&gt; CD Player &amp; Ripper.</p>
     627
     628        </li></ol>
     629        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="scribus"></a>How to install Scribus desktop publishing software?</p>
     630        <ol>
     631                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     632                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     633                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     634
     635                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get install scribus</pre>
     636                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#refreshgnomepanel"> How to refresh GNOME panel?</a></p>
     637                </li><li><p align="left">Run it from Applications
     638                -&gt; Office -&gt; Scribus.</p>
     639        </li></ol>
     640
     641        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="dia"></a>How to install Dia diagram and flow chart editor?</p>
     642        <ol>
     643                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     644                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     645                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     646
     647                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install dia-gnome</pre>
     648                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#refreshgnomepanel"> How to refresh GNOME panel?</a></p>
     649                </li><li><p align="left">Run it from Applications
     650                -&gt; Graphics -&gt; Dia.</p>
     651        </li></ol>
     652
     653        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="nessus"></a>How to install Nessus security tool?</p>
     654        <ol>
     655                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     656                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     657                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     658
     659                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get install nessus<br># apt-get install nessusd<br># nessus-adduser<br># ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd<br># /etc/init.d/nessusd start<br># vi /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop</pre>
     660                </li><li><p align="left">In sert the following lines into the new file:</p>
     661                <pre class="file" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">[Desktop Entry]<br>Name=Nessus<br>Comment=Nessus<br>Exec=nessus<br>Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm<br>Terminal=false<br>Type=Application<br>Categories=Application;System;</pre>
     662
     663                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/Nessus.desktop_nessus">Sample</a>)
     664               
     665                </p>
     666                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#refreshgnomepanel"> How to refresh GNOME panel?</a></p>
     667                </li><li><p align="left">Run it from Applications
     668                -&gt; System Tools -&gt; Nessus.</p>
     669
     670        </li></ol>
     671        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="gdesklets"></a>How to install gDesklets Desktop Applets tool?</p>
     672        <ol>
     673                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     674                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     675                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     676
     677                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get install gdesklets<br># apt-get install gdesklets-data</pre>
     678                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#refreshgnomepanel"> How to refresh GNOME panel?</a></p>
     679                </li><li><p align="left">Run it from Applications
     680                -&gt; Accessories -&gt; gDesklets.</p>
     681        </li></ol>
     682
     683        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="anjuta"></a>How to install Anjuta IDE?
     684        </p>
     685        <ol>
     686                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     687                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     688                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     689
     690                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get install anjuta<br></pre>
     691                </li><li><p align="left">Run it from  Applications
     692                -&gt; Programming -&gt; Anjuta.</p>
     693        </li></ol>
     694        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="blender"></a>How to install Blender 3D modeller/renderer?
     695        </p>
     696        <ol>
     697
     698                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     699                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     700                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     701                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get install blender<br></pre>
     702                </li><li><p align="left">Run it from  Applications
     703                -&gt; Graphics -&gt; Blender.</p>
     704
     705        </li></ol>
     706        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="stell"></a>How to install Stellarium sky generator?
     707        </p>
     708        <ol>
     709                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     710                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     711                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     712
     713                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get install stellarium<br></pre>               
     714        </li></ol>
     715        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="kde"></a>How to install KDE desktop environment?
     716        </p>
     717        <ol>
     718                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     719                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     720
     721                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     722                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get install kde<br></pre>
     723                </li><li><p align="left">Choose "KDE" in GDM Sessions menu to login into KDE desktop environment.</p>
     724        </li></ol>
     725        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="xfce"></a>How to install xFce desktop environment?
     726        </p>
     727        <ol>
     728                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     729
     730                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     731                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     732                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get install xfce4<br></pre>
     733                </li><li><p align="left">Choose "xFce" in GDM Sessions menu to login into xFce desktop environment.</p>
     734
     735        </li></ol>
     736        <hr>
     737
     738        <h2 align="left"><a name="usersadministration"></a>Users Administration</h2>
     739        <hr>
     740        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="setchangeenablerootpassword"></a>How to set/change/enable root user password?</p>
     741        <ol>
     742                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     743                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     744
     745                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># passwd root</pre>
     746        </li></ol>
     747        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="disablerootaccount"></a>How to disable root user account?</p>
     748        <ol>
     749                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     750                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     751
     752                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># passwd -l root</pre>
     753        </li></ol>
     754        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="allowrootlogingnome"></a>How to allow root user to login into GNOME?</p>
     755        <ol>
     756                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     757                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#setchangeenablerootpassword">How to set/change/enable root user password?</a>           
     758                </p>
     759
     760                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     761                -&gt; Administration -&gt; Login Window
     762                </p>
     763                </li><li><p align="left">In Login Window
     764                </p>
     765                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Security Tab -&gt; Enable Automatic Login(<b>Checked</b>) -&gt; <br>User: <b>Type "system_username"</b></pre>
     766
     767        </li></ol>
     768        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="switchtoroot"></a>How to switch to root user in Console mode?</p>
     769        <ol>
     770                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     771                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     772                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># /bin/su root</pre>
     773
     774        </li></ol>
     775        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="addeditdeletesystemusers"></a>How to add/edit/delete system users?</p>
     776        <ol>
     777                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     778                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     779                -&gt; Administration -&gt; Users and Groups
     780                </p>
     781
     782                </li><li><p align="left">In Users
     783                and Groups
     784                </p>
     785                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Users Tab -&gt; <b>Add User.../Properties/Delete</b></pre>
     786        </li></ol>
     787        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="addeditdeletesystemgroups"></a>How to add/edit/delete system groups?</p>
     788        <ol>
     789                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     790
     791                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     792                -&gt; Administration -&gt; Users and Groups
     793                </p>
     794                </li><li><p align="left">In Users
     795                and Groups
     796                </p>
     797                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Groups Tab -&gt; <b>Add Group.../Properties/Delete</b></pre>
     798        </li></ol>
     799
     800        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="automaticlogingnome"></a>How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)?</p>
     801        <ol>
     802                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     803                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     804                -&gt; Administration -&gt; Login Window
     805                </p>
     806
     807                </li><li><p align="left">In Login Window
     808                </p>
     809                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Security Tab -&gt; Enable Automatic Login (<b>Checked</b>) -&gt; User: <b>Type "system_username"</b></pre>
     810        </li></ol>
     811        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="changefilesfolderspermissions"></a>How to change files/folders permissions?</p>
     812
     813        <ol>
     814                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     815                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Right click on files/folders -&gt; <b>Properties</b>
     816Permissions Tab -&gt; Read/Write/Execute (<b>Checked the permissions for Owner/Group/Others</b>)</pre>
     817
     818        </li></ol>
     819        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="changefilesfoldersownership"></a>How to change files/folders ownership?</p>
     820        <ol>
     821                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     822                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     823                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># chown -R system_username /location_of_files_or_folders</pre>
     824
     825        </li></ol>
     826        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="changefilesfoldersgroupownership"></a>How to change files/folders group ownership?</p>
     827        <ol>
     828                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     829                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     830                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># chgrp -R system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders</pre>
     831
     832        </li></ol>
     833        <p><br>
     834        </p>
     835        <hr>
     836        <h2 align="left"><a name="hardware"></a>Hardware</h2>
     837        <hr>
     838        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="installnvidiadriver"></a>How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)?</p>
     839        <ol>
     840
     841                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     842                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     843                </p></li><li><p align="left">Type the following commands to install pre-compiled driver packages:</p></li>
     844                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get update && apt-get install nvidia-kernel-`uname -r`</pre>
     845
     846                </p></li><li><p align="left">Edit the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file and remove the following lines:</p></li>
     847                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">Load "dri"<br>Load "GLcore"</pre>
     848                </p></li><li><p align="left">Add the following lines:</p></li>
     849                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">Load "glx"</pre>
     850                </p></li><li><p align="left">In the driver section, change driver name from "nv" to "nvidia":</p></li>
     851                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>Section "Device"<br>        Driver "nvidia"<br>...</pre>
     852
     853                </p></li><li><p align="left">Load nVidia kernel driver automatically:</p></li>
     854                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># echo nvidia >> /etc/modules</pre>
     855                </p></li><li><p align="left">Reboot the system:</p></li>
     856                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># reboot</pre>
     857        </li></ol>
     858        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="disablenvidialogo"></a>How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup?</p>
     859
     860        <ol>
     861                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     862                </li><li><p align="left"><a name="installnvidiadriver">How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)?</a><a></a></p>
     863<a>             </a><pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"><a># cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup<br># vi /etc/X11/xorg.conf</a></pre>
     864<a>             </a></li><li><p align="left"><a>Find these lines:               
     865                </a></p>
     866
     867<a>             </a><pre class="file" dir="ltr"><a>...<br>Section "Device"<br>        Identifier "NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"<br>        Driver "nvidia"<br>        BusID "PCI:1:0:0"<br>...</a></pre>
     868<a>             </a></li><li><p align="left"><a>Add these lines after:
     869               
     870                </a></p>
     871<a>             </a><pre class="file" dir="ltr"><a> Option "NoLogo"</a></pre>
     872
     873<a>             </a></li><li><p align="left"><a>Save the edited file (</a><a href="sample/xorg.conf_disablenvidialogo">Sample</a>)
     874               
     875                </p>
     876                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#restartgnomewithoutreboot">How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?</a></p>
     877        </li></ol>
     878        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="installatidriver"></a>How to install Graphics Driver (ATI)?</p>
     879        <ol>
     880                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     881
     882                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     883                </p></li><li><p align="left">Type the following commands to install pre-compiled driver packages:</p></li>
     884                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get update && apt-get install fglrx-driver fglrx-glx fglrx-control fglrx-kernel-`uname -r`</pre>
     885                </p></li><li><p align="left">Edit the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file and in the driver section, change driver name from "ati" or "radeon" to "fglrx":</p></li>
     886                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>Section "Device"<br>        Driver "fglrx"<br>...</pre>
     887
     888                </p></li><li><p align="left">Load ATI kernel driver automatically:</p></li>
     889                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># echo fglrx >> /etc/modules</pre>
     890                </p></li><li><p align="left">Reboot the system:</p></li>
     891                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># reboot</pre>
     892        </li></ol>
     893        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="listpartitiontables"></a>How to list partition tables?</p>
     894
     895        <ol>
     896                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     897                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     898                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># fdisk -l</pre>
     899        </li></ol>
     900        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="listfilesystemdiskspaceusage"></a>How to list filesystem disk space usage?</p>
     901
     902        <ol>
     903                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     904                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     905                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">$ df -T -h</pre>
     906        </li></ol>
     907        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="listmounteddevices"></a>How to list mounted devices?</p>
     908
     909        <ol>
     910                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     911                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     912                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">$ mount</pre>
     913        </li></ol>
     914        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="listpcidevices"></a>How to list PCI devices?</p>
     915
     916        <ol>
     917                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     918                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     919                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># lspci</pre>
     920        </li></ol>
     921        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="listusbdevices"></a>How to list USB devices?</p>
     922
     923        <ol>
     924                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     925                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     926                <pre class="terminal" style="margin-top: 0cm; margin-bottom: 0cm; text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># lsusb</pre>
     927        </li></ol>
     928        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="mountunmountcddvdromunhide"></a>How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders?</p>
     929
     930        <ol>
     931                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     932                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that dev/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM.</pre>
     933                </li><li><p align="left">To mount CD/DVD-ROM:</p>
     934                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide</pre>
     935                </li><li><p align="left">To unmount CD/DVD-ROM:</p>
     936
     937                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># umount /media/cdrom0/</pre>
     938        </li></ol>
     939        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="unmountcddvdromforcefully"></a>How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually?</p>
     940        <ol>
     941                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     942                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that dev/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM.</pre>
     943
     944                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     945                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># umount /dev/cdrom0 -l</pre>
     946        </li></ol>
     947        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="remountfstabwithoutreboot"></a>How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?</p>
     948        <ol>
     949                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     950
     951                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     952                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mount -a</pre>
     953        </li></ol>
     954        <hr>
     955        <h2 align="left"><a name="cddvdburning"></a>CD/DVD Burning</h2>
     956        <hr>
     957        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="blankcdrwdvdrw"></a>How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW?</p>
     958
     959        <ol>
     960                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     961                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom0 is the location of CD/DVD-ROM .</pre>
     962                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     963                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># umount /dev/cdrom0<br>$ cdrecord /dev/cdrom0 blank=fast</pre>
     964
     965        </li></ol>
     966        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="burnfilesfolderscddvd"></a>How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD?</p>
     967        <ol>
     968                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     969                </li><li><p align="left">Type following command or type burn:/// in nautilus's location bar:</p>
     970                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ nautilus burn:///</pre>
     971
     972                </li><li><p align="left">File Browser: CD/DVD Creator</p>
     973                <pre class="program" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">Drag files/folders into window<br>File Menu -&gt; <b>Write to Disc...</b> -&gt; <b>Write</b></pre>
     974        </li></ol>
     975        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="burnisocddvd"></a>How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD?</p>
     976
     977        <ol>
     978                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     979                </li><li><pre class="program" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">Right click on Image (ISO) file -&gt; <b>Write to Disc...</b> -&gt; <b>Write</b></pre>
     980        </li></ol>
     981
     982        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="duplicatecddvd"></a>How to duplicate CD/DVD?</p>
     983        <ol>
     984                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     985                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#createisofromcddvd">How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD?</a>
     986                </p>
     987                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#burnisocddvd">How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD?</a>   
     988                </p>
     989
     990        </li></ol>
     991        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="createisofromcddvd"></a>How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD?</p>
     992        <ol>
     993                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     994                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that dev/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM </pre>
     995                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     996
     997                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># umount /dev/cdrom0<br>$ dd if=/dev/cdrom0 of=file.iso bs=1024</pre>
     998        </li></ol>
     999        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="createisofromfolders"></a>How to create Image (ISO) files from folders?</p>
     1000        <ol>
     1001                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1002                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     1003
     1004                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ mkisofs -o file.iso /location_of_folder/</pre>
     1005        </li></ol>
     1006        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="generatemd5"></a><a name="generatemd6"></a>How to generate MD5 checksum files?</p>
     1007        <ol>
     1008                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1009                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     1010
     1011                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ md5sum file.iso &gt; file.iso.md5</pre>
     1012        </li></ol>
     1013        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="checkmd6"></a>How to check MD5 checksum of files?</p>
     1014        <ol>
     1015                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1016
     1017                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder.</pre>
     1018                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     1019                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ md5sum -c file.iso.md5</pre>
     1020        </li></ol>
     1021        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="mountunmountisofileswithoutburning0"></a>How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning?</p>
     1022        <ol>
     1023                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1024
     1025                </li><li><p align="left">To mount Image (ISO) file</p>
     1026                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># mkdir /media/iso<br># modprobe loop<br># mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop</pre>
     1027                </li><li><p align="left">To unmount Image (ISO) file</p>
     1028                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># umount /media/iso/</pre>
     1029        </li></ol>
     1030        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="setchangeburnspeedcddvdburner"></a>How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner?</p>
     1031
     1032        <ol>
     1033                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1034                </li><li><p align="left">Click on Applications
     1035                -&gt; System Tools -&gt; Configuration Editor
     1036                </p>
     1037                </li><li><p align="left">In Configuration
     1038                Editor
     1039                </p>
     1040
     1041                <pre class="program" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">/ -&gt; apps -&gt; nautilus-cd-burner -&gt; default_speed (<b>set/change the burn speed</b>)</pre>
     1042        </li></ol>
     1043        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="enableburnproofcddvdburner"></a>How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner?</p>
     1044        <ol>
     1045
     1046                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1047                </li><li><p align="left">Click on Applications
     1048                -&gt; System Tools -&gt; Configuration Editor
     1049                </p>
     1050                </li><li><p align="left">In  Configuration
     1051                Editor
     1052                </p>
     1053                <pre class="program" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">/ -&gt; apps -&gt; nautilus-cd-burner -&gt; burnproof (<b>Checked</b>)</pre>
     1054
     1055        </li></ol>
     1056        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="enableoverburncddvdburner"></a>How to enable overburn for CD/DVD? Burner?</p>
     1057        <ol>
     1058                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1059                </li><li><p align="left">Click on Applications
     1060                -&gt; System Tools -&gt; Configuration Editor
     1061                </p>
     1062
     1063                </li><li><p align="left">In  Configuration
     1064                Editor
     1065                </p>
     1066                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">/ -&gt; apps -&gt; nautilus-cd-burner -&gt; overburn (<b>Checked</b>)</pre>
     1067        </li></ol>
     1068        <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-bottom: 0cm;">&nbsp;
     1069        </p>
     1070
     1071        <hr>
     1072        <h2 align="left"><a name="networking"></a>Networking</h2>
     1073        <hr>
     1074        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="activatedeactivatenetworkconnections"></a>How to activate/deactivate network connections?</p>
     1075        <ol>
     1076                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1077
     1078                </li><li><p align="left">To activate installed network card(s):</p>
     1079                <pre class="terminal" style="margin-top: 0cm; margin-bottom: 0cm; text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># netcardconfig</pre>
     1080                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     1081                -&gt; Administration -&gt; Networking
     1082                </p>
     1083                </li><li><p align="left">In  Network
     1084                settings
     1085                </p>
     1086                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Connections Tab -&gt; <b>Select "Ethernet connection"</b> -&gt; <b>Activate/Deactivate</b></pre>
     1087
     1088        </li></ol>
     1089        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="configurenetworkconnections"></a>How to configure network connections?</p>
     1090        <ol>
     1091                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1092                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     1093                -&gt; Administration -&gt; Networking
     1094                </p>
     1095
     1096                </li><li><p align="left">In  Network
     1097                settings
     1098                </p>
     1099                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Connections Tab -&gt; <b>Select "Ethernet connection"</b> -&gt; <b>Properties</b>
     1100Connection -&gt; This device is configured (<b>Checked</b>)<br>Connection Settings -&gt; Configuration: <b>Select "DHCP/Static IP address"</b>
     1101
     1102DNS Tab -&gt; DNS Servers -&gt; <b>Add/Delete</b></pre>
     1103                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#activatedeactivatenetworkconnections">How to activate/deactivate network connections?</a>               
     1104                </p>
     1105        </li></ol>
     1106        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="configuredialup"></a>How to configure dialup connections?</p>
     1107        <ol>
     1108
     1109                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1110                </li><li><p align="left">Click on Applications -&gt; Parsix -&gt; Config Dialup Internet or type:</p>
     1111                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># pppconfig</pre>
     1112                </li><li><p align="left">To connect dialup:</p>
     1113
     1114                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">$ pon provider_name</pre>
     1115                </li><li><p align="left">To disconnect dialup:
     1116                </p>
     1117                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">$ poff</pre>
     1118        </li></ol>
     1119        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="configurebroadband"></a>How to configure broadband connections?</p>
     1120        <ol>
     1121                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1122
     1123                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     1124                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># pppoeconf</pre>
     1125        </li></ol>
     1126        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="changecomputername"></a>How to change computer name?</p>
     1127        <ol>
     1128                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1129
     1130                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     1131                -&gt; Administration -&gt; Networking
     1132                </p>
     1133                </li><li><p align="left">In  Network
     1134                settings
     1135                </p>
     1136                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">General Tab -&gt; Host Settings -&gt; Hostname: <b>Specify the computer name</b></pre>
     1137
     1138                </li><li><p align="left">Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer.</p>
     1139        </li></ol>
     1140        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="changecomputerdescriptions"></a>How to change computer descriptions?</p>
     1141        <ol>
     1142                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1143                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1144
     1145                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup<br># vi /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
     1146                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1147                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br> server string = %h server (Samba %v)<br>...</pre>
     1148                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following line:</p>
     1149                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> server string = new_computer_descriptions</pre>
     1150
     1151                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smb.conf_changecomputerdescriptions">Sample</a>)</p>
     1152                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># testparm<br># /etc/init.d/samba restart</pre>
     1153        </li></ol>
     1154        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="changecomputerdomainworkgroup"></a>How to change computer Domain/Workgroup?</p>
     1155        <ol>
     1156                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1157
     1158                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1159                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup<br># vi /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
     1160                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1161                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br> workgroup = WORKGROUP<br>...</pre>
     1162
     1163                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following line:</p>
     1164                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup</pre>
     1165                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smb.conf_changecomputerdomainworkgroup">Sample</a>)
     1166               
     1167                </p>
     1168                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># testparm<br># /etc/init.d/samba restart</pre>
     1169        </li></ol>
     1170
     1171        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sharefolderstheeasyway"></a>How to share folders the easy way?</p>
     1172        <ol>
     1173                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1174                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1175                </li><li><p align="left">Nautilus window</p>
     1176
     1177                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Right click on folder -&gt; <b>Share folder</b>
     1178Shared folder -&gt; Share with: <b>Select "SMB"</b>
     1179Share properties -&gt; Name: <b>Specify the share name</b></pre>
     1180        </li></ol>
     1181
     1182        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="browsenetworkcomputers"></a>How to browse network computers?</p>
     1183        <ol>
     1184                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1185                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly.</pre>
     1186                </li><li><p align="left">Click on Places
     1187                -&gt; Network Servers
     1188                </p>
     1189
     1190        </li></ol>
     1191        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="accessnetworkfolderswihoutmount"></a>How to access network folders without mounting?</p>
     1192        <ol>
     1193                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1194                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly.<br>Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1<br>Shared folder's name: linux</pre>
     1195
     1196                </li><li><p align="left">Click on Applications
     1197                -&gt; Run Application
     1198                </p>
     1199                </li><li><p align="left">In Run
     1200                Application type:</p>
     1201                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">smb://192.168.0.1/linux</pre>
     1202        </li></ol>
     1203        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="mountunmountnetworkfolders"></a>How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read?</p>
     1204        <ol>
     1205
     1206                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1207                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1208                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly.<br>Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1<br>Network computer's Username: myusername<br>Network computer's Password: mypassword<br>Shared folder's name: linux<br>Local mount folder: /media/sharename</pre>
     1209
     1210                </li><li><p align="left">To mount network folder:</p>
     1211                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mkdir /media/sharename<br># mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword</pre>
     1212                </li><li><p align="left">To unmount network folder:</p>
     1213                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># umount /media/sharename/</pre>
     1214        </li></ol>
     1215        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="mountunmountnetworkfoldersall"></a>How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write?</p>
     1216
     1217        <ol>
     1218                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1219                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1220                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly.<br>Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1<br>Network computer's Username: myusername<br>Network computer's Password: mypassword<br>Shared folder's name: linux<br>Local mount folder: /media/sharename</pre>
     1221
     1222                </li><li><p align="left">To mount network folder:</p>
     1223                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mkdir /media/sharename<br># mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777</pre>
     1224                </li><li><p align="left">To unmount network folder:</p>
     1225                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># umount /media/sharename/</pre>
     1226        </li></ol>
     1227        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="automountnetworkfolders"></a>How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read?</p>
     1228
     1229        <ol>
     1230                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1231                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1232                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly.<br>Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1<br>Network computer's Username: myusername<br>Network computer's Password: mypassword<br>Shared folder's name: linux<br>Local mount folder: /media/sharename</pre>
     1233
     1234                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1235                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># mkdir /media/sharename<br># vi /root/.smbcredentials</pre>
     1236                </li><li><p align="left">Insert the following lines into the new file</p>
     1237                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">username=myusername<br>password=mypassword</pre>
     1238                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smbcredentials_automountnetworkfolders">Sample</a>)
     1239               
     1240                </p>
     1241
     1242                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1243                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials<br># cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup<br># gedit /etc/fstab</pre>
     1244                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following line at the end of file</p>
     1245                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">//192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename smbfs credentials=/root/.smbcredentials 0 0</pre>
     1246                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/fstab_automountnetworkfolders">Sample</a>)
     1247               
     1248                </p>
     1249
     1250                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#remountfstabwithoutreboot">How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?</a></p>
     1251        </li></ol>
     1252        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="automountnetworkfoldersall"></a>How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write?</p>
     1253        <ol>
     1254                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1255                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1256
     1257                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly.<br>Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1<br>Network computer's Username: myusername<br>Network computer's Password: mypassword<br>Shared folder's name: linux<br>Local mount folder: /media/sharename</pre>
     1258                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1259                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># mkdir /media/sharename<br># gedit /root/.smbcredentials</pre>
     1260                </li><li><p align="left">Insert the following lines into the new file</p>
     1261
     1262                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">username=myusername<br>password=mypassword</pre>
     1263                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smbcredentials_automountnetworkfoldersall">Sample</a>)
     1264               
     1265                </p>
     1266                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials<br># cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup<br># gedit /etc/fstab</pre>
     1267                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following line at the end of file</p>
     1268
     1269                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">//192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename smbfs credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777 0 0</pre>
     1270                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/fstab_automountnetworkfoldersall">Sample</a>)
     1271               
     1272                </p>
     1273                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#remountfstabwithoutreboot">How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?</a></p>
     1274        </li></ol>
     1275        <p><br>
     1276        </p>
     1277
     1278        <hr>
     1279        <h2 align="left"><a name="remotedesktop"></a>Remote Desktop</h2>
     1280        <hr>
     1281        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="configureremotedesktop"></a>How to configure remote desktop (not secure)?</p>
     1282        <ol>
     1283                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1284
     1285                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session<br>Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure<br>Use (System -&gt; Lock Screen) and off the monitor when computer is left unattended</pre>
     1286                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     1287                -&gt; Preferences -&gt; Remote Desktop
     1288                </p>
     1289                </li><li><p align="left">In Remote
     1290                Desktop Preferences
     1291                </p>
     1292
     1293                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Sharing -&gt;<br>Allow other users to view your desktop (<b>Checked</b>)<br>Allow other users to control your desktop (<b>Checked</b>)<br>Security -&gt;<br>Ask you for confirmation (<b>Un-Checked</b>)<br>Require the user to enter this password: (<b>Checked</b>)<br>Password: <b>Specify the password</b></pre>
     1294
     1295        </li></ol>
     1296        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="vncfromparsix"></a>How to connect into remote Parsix GNU/Linux desktop?</p>
     1297        <ol>
     1298                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1299                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop<br>Remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine: 192.168.0.1</pre>
     1300                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     1301
     1302                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ rdesktop 192.168.0.1:0</pre>
     1303                </li><li><p align="left">To quit vncviewer press F8 --&gt; Quit Viewer.</p>
     1304        </li></ol>
     1305        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="vncfromwindows"></a>How to connect into remote Parsix GNU/Linux desktop via Windows machine?</p>
     1306        <ol>
     1307                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1308
     1309                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop<br>Remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine: 192.168.0.1</pre>
     1310                </li><li><p align="left">Download VNC Viewer: <a href="http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/vnc-4_1_1-x86_win32_viewer.exe">here</a>.</p>
     1311        </li></ol>
     1312        <hr>
     1313        <h2 align="left"><a name="windows"></a>Windows</h2>
     1314        <hr>
     1315
     1316        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="mountunmountntfs"></a>How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only?</p>
     1317        <ol>
     1318                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1319                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#listpartitiontables">How to list partition tables?</a></p>
     1320                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that dev/hda1/ is the location of Windows partition(NTFS).<br>Local mount folder: /media/windows/.</pre>
     1321
     1322                </li><li><p align="left">To mount Windows partition:</p>
     1323                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mkdir /media/windows<br># mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o utf8,umask=0222</pre>
     1324                </li><li><p align="left">To unmount Windows partition:</p>
     1325                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># umount /media/windows/</pre>
     1326        </li></ol>
     1327        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="mountunmountfat"></a>How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write?</p>
     1328
     1329        <ol>
     1330                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1331                                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#listpartitiontables">How to list partition tables?</a></p>
     1332                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that dev/hda1/ is the location of Windows partition (FAT).<br>Local mount folder: /media/windows/.</pre>
     1333                </li><li><p align="left">To mount Windows partition:</p>
     1334
     1335                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mkdir /media/windows<br># mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o utf8,umask=0222</pre>
     1336                </li><li><p align="left">To unmount Windows partition:</p>
     1337                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># umount /media/windows/</pre>
     1338        </li></ol>
     1339        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="automountntfs"></a>How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only?</p>
     1340        <ol>
     1341
     1342                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1343                                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#listpartitiontables">How to list partition tables?</a></p>
     1344                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that dev/hda1/ is the location of Windows partition.(NTFS)<br>Local mount folder: /media/windows/.</pre>
     1345                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1346                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># mkdir /media/windows<br># cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup<br># gedit /etc/fstab</pre>
     1347
     1348                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following line at the end of file</p>
     1349                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">/dev/hda1 /media/windows vfat utf8,umask=0222 0 0</pre>
     1350                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/fstab_automountntfs">Sample</a>)
     1351               
     1352                </p>
     1353                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#remountfstabwithoutreboot">How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?</a></p>
     1354        </li></ol>
     1355        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="automountfat"></a>How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write?</p>
     1356
     1357        <ol>
     1358                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1359                                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#listpartitiontables">How to list partition tables?</a></p>
     1360                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that dev/hda1/ is the location of Windows partition.(FAT)<br>Local mount folder: /media/windows/.</pre>
     1361                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1362
     1363                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># mkdir /media/windows<br># cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup<br># gedit /etc/fstab</pre>
     1364                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following line at the end of file</p>
     1365                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">/dev/hda1 /media/windows vfat utf8,umask=000 0 0</pre>
     1366                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/fstab_automountfat">Sample</a>)
     1367               
     1368                </p>
     1369                </li><li><p align="left"><a href="#remountfstabwithoutreboot">How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?</a></p>
     1370
     1371        </li></ol>
     1372        <p><br>
     1373        </p>
     1374        <hr>
     1375        <h2 align="left"><a name="security"></a>Security</h2>
     1376        <hr>
     1377        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="basicsecuringparsix"></a>What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Parsix GNU/Linux?</p>
     1378        <ol>
     1379
     1380                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1381                </li><li><p align="left">Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence</p>
     1382                <ol>
     1383                        <li><p align="left">To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access</p>
     1384                        </li><li><p align="left">To
     1385prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g.
     1386UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the
     1387entire hard drive</p>
     1388                        </li><li><p align="left">To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System</p>
     1389
     1390                </li></ol>
     1391                </li><li><p align="left">Ensure a password is set for BIOS</p>
     1392                <ol>
     1393                        <li><p align="left">To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence</p>
     1394                </li></ol>
     1395                </li><li><p align="left">Ensure computer is located at a secured place</p>
     1396                <ol>
     1397
     1398                        <li><p align="left">To
     1399prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows
     1400them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different
     1401computer</p>
     1402                        </li><li><p align="left">To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password</p>
     1403                </li></ol>
     1404                </li><li><p align="left">Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed</p>
     1405                <ol>
     1406                        <li><p align="left">To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)</p>
     1407                        </li><li><p align="left">Create password with minimum length of 8 characters</p>
     1408
     1409                        </li><li><p align="left">Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case</p>
     1410                </li></ol>
     1411                </li><li><p align="left">Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode</p>                         
     1412                <ol>
     1413                        <li><p align="left">To prevent trespassers from seeing previously issued commands</p>
     1414                        </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#disablehistorylistingconsole">How to disable history listing in Console mode?</a></p>
     1415                </li></ol>
     1416
     1417                </li><li><p align="left">Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode</p>
     1418                <ol>
     1419                        <li><p align="left">To prevent trespassers from restarting the system without permission in Console mode</p>                   
     1420                </li></ol>
     1421                </li><li><p align="left">Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode</p>
     1422                <ol>
     1423                        <li><p align="left">To prevent accidental removal/overwritten of files/folders</p>
     1424
     1425                        </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#promptbeforeremovaloverwrittenconsole">How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode?</a></p>
     1426                </li></ol>
     1427                </li><li><p align="left">For day to day usage, login as a normal user</p>
     1428                <ol>
     1429                        <li><p align="left">To prevent accidental deletion/modification of system files/folders</p>
     1430                        </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#addeditdeletesystemusers">How to add/edit/delete system users?</a></p>
     1431
     1432                </li></ol>
     1433                </li><li><p align="left">Install a firewall</p>
     1434                <ol>
     1435                        <li><p align="left">A firewall does not guarantee security but it is in most environments the first line of defense against network based attacks</p>
     1436                </li></ol>
     1437                </li><li><p align="left">Perform vulnerability test</p>
     1438                <ol>
     1439
     1440                        <li><p align="left">Nessus is a great tool designed to automate the testing and discovery of known security problems</p>
     1441                        </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#nessus">How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)?</a></p>
     1442                </li></ol>
     1443        </li></ol>
     1444        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="disablehistorylistingconsole"></a>How to disable history listing in Console mode?</p>
     1445        <ol>
     1446                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1447
     1448                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1449                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">$ rm ~/.bash_history<br>$ touch ~/.bash_history<br>$ chmod 000 ~/.bash_history</pre>
     1450        </li></ol>
     1451        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="promptbeforeremovaloverwrittenconsole"></a>How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode?</p>
     1452        <ol>
     1453                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1454
     1455                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1456                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/profile /etc/profile_backup<br># gedit /etc/profile</pre>
     1457                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following lines at the end of file</p>
     1458                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">alias rm='rm -i'<br>alias cp='cp -i'<br>alias mv='mv -i'</pre>
     1459                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file</p>
     1460
     1461               
     1462                <p></p>
     1463        </li></ol>
     1464        <p><br>
     1465        </p>
     1466        <hr>
     1467        <h2 align="left"><a name="tipsntricks"></a>Tips &amp; Tricks</h2>
     1468        <hr>
     1469
     1470        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="restartgnomewithoutreboot"></a>How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?</p>
     1471        <ol>
     1472                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1473                </li><li><p align="left">Save and close all opened applications</p>
     1474                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Press 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'</pre><p align="left"> or type:
     1475                </p>
     1476
     1477                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">/etc/init.d/gdm restart</pre>
     1478        </li></ol>             
     1479        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="runprogramsstartupgnome"></a>How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME?</p>
     1480        <ol>
     1481                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1482                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     1483                -&gt; Preferences -&gt; Sessions
     1484                </p>
     1485
     1486                </li><li><p align="left">In  Sessions
     1487               
     1488                </p>
     1489                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Startup Programs Tab -&gt; <b>Add/Edit/Delete</b></pre>
     1490        </li></ol>
     1491        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="switchtoconsole"></a>How to switch to Console mode in GNOME?</p>
     1492        <ol>
     1493                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1494
     1495                </li><li><p align="left">To switch to Console mode</p>
     1496                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F4)</pre>
     1497                </li><li><p align="left">To switch back to GNOME mode</p>
     1498                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F5'</pre>
     1499        </li></ol>
     1500        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="disablectrlaltbackspacegnome"></a>How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME?</p>
     1501
     1502        <ol>
     1503                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1504                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1505                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup<br># gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf</pre>
     1506                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following lines at the end of file:</p>
     1507
     1508                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">Section "ServerFlags"<br>        Option "DontZap" "yes"<br>EndSection</pre>
     1509                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/xorg.conf_disablectrlaltbackspacegnome">Sample</a>)
     1510               
     1511                </p>
     1512                </li><li>Read <p align="left"><a href="#restartgnomewithoutreboot">How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?</a></p>
     1513        </li></ol>
     1514
     1515        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="enablectrlaltdelopensystemmonitorgnome"></a>How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME?</p>
     1516        <ol>
     1517                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1518                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1519                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">$ gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "&lt;Control&gt;&lt;Alt&gt;Delete"<br>$ gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"</pre>
     1520
     1521        </li></ol>
     1522        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="refreshgnomedesktop"></a>How to refresh GNOME desktop?</p>
     1523        <ol>
     1524                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1525                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     1526                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">$ killall nautilus</pre>
     1527
     1528        </li></ol>
     1529        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="refreshgnomepanel"></a>How to refresh GNOME panel?</p>
     1530        <ol>
     1531                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1532                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     1533                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">$ killall gnome-panel</pre>
     1534
     1535        </li></ol>
     1536        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="openeachfolderssamewindownautilus"></a>How to open each folder in the same window in Nautilus?</p>
     1537        <ol>
     1538                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1539                </li><li><p align="left">Click on Applications
     1540                -&gt; System Tools -&gt; Configuration Editor
     1541                </p>
     1542
     1543                </li><li><p align="left">In  Configuration
     1544                Editor
     1545                </p>
     1546                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">/ -&gt; apps -&gt; nautilus -&gt; preferences -&gt; always_use_browser (<b>Checked</b>)</pre>
     1547        </li></ol>
     1548
     1549        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="showallhiddenfilesfoldersnautilus"></a>How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus?</p>
     1550        <ol>
     1551                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1552                </li><li><p align="left">Places
     1553                -&gt; Home Folder
     1554                </p>
     1555                </li><li><p align="left">To temporary show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus:</p>
     1556
     1557                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Press 'Ctrl + H'</pre>
     1558                </li><li><p align="left">To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus:</p>
     1559                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Edit Menu -&gt; <b>Preferences</b>
     1560Views Tab -&gt; Default View -&gt; Show hidden and backup files (<b>Checked</b>)</pre>
     1561
     1562        </li></ol>
     1563        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="changedefaultfiletypeprogram"></a>How to change default file type "Open with" program?</p>
     1564        <ol>
     1565                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1566                </li><li><p align="left">Then:</p>
     1567                <pre class="program" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">Right click on file -&gt; <b>Properties</b>
     1568
     1569Open With Tab -&gt; <b>Add</b>
     1570<b>Select "Open with" program</b>
     1571Select "Open with" program (<b>Checked</b>)</pre>
     1572        </li></ol>
     1573        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="changepreferredemailthunderbird"></a>How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird?</p>
     1574        <ol>
     1575
     1576                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1577                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     1578                -&gt; Preferences -&gt; Preferred Applications
     1579                </p>
     1580                </li><li><p align="left">In Preferred
     1581                Applications
     1582                </p>
     1583                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Mail Reader Tab -&gt; Default Mail Reader -&gt; Command: <b>mozilla-thunderbird %s</b></pre>
     1584
     1585        </li></ol>
     1586        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="disablebeepsoundterminalmode"></a>How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode?</p>
     1587        <ol>
     1588                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1589                </li><li><p align="left">Click on Applications
     1590                -&gt; System Tools -&gt; Terminal
     1591                </p>
     1592
     1593                </li><li><p align="left">In Terminal
     1594               
     1595                </p>
     1596                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Edit Menu -&gt; <b>Current Profile...</b>
     1597General Tab -&gt; General -&gt; Terminal bell (<b>Un-Checked</b>)</pre>
     1598        </li></ol>
     1599
     1600        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="loadwebsitefasterfirefox"></a>How to tune up GNU Iceweasel's performance?</p>
     1601        <ol>
     1602                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1603                </li><li><p align="left">Click on Applications
     1604                -&gt; Internet -&gt; Iceweasel Web Browser
     1605                </p>
     1606
     1607                </li><li><p align="left">In GNU Iceweasel
     1608                </p>
     1609                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Address Bar -&gt; <b>about:config</b>
     1610Filter: -&gt;
     1611<b>network.dns.disableIPv6</b> -&gt; <b>true</b>
     1612<b>network.http.pipelining</b> -&gt; <b>true</b>
     1613
     1614<b>network.http.pipelining.maxrequests</b> -&gt; <b>8</b>
     1615<b>network.http.proxy.pipelining</b> -&gt; <b>true</b></pre>
     1616                </li><li><p align="left">Restart GNU Iceweasel.</p>
     1617        </li></ol>
     1618
     1619        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="disablebeepsoundlinkfindfirefox"></a>How to disable beep sound for link find function in GNU Iceweasel?</p>
     1620        <ol>
     1621                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1622                </li><li><p align="left">Click on Applications
     1623                -&gt; Internet -&gt; Iceweasel Web Browser
     1624                </p>
     1625
     1626                </li><li><p align="left">In GNU Iceweasel
     1627                </p>
     1628                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Address Bar -&gt; <b>about:config</b>
     1629Filter: -&gt; <b>accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound</b> -&gt; <b>false</b></pre>
     1630                </li><li><p align="left">Restart GNU Iceweasel.</p>
     1631
     1632        </li></ol>
     1633        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="synaptic"></a>How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)?</p>
     1634        <ol>
     1635                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1636                </li><li><p align="left">Click on System
     1637                -&gt; Administration -&gt; Synaptic Package Manager
     1638                </p>
     1639
     1640                </li><li><p align="left">In Synaptic
     1641                Package Manager
     1642                </p>
     1643                <ol>
     1644                        <li><p align="left">To refresh the list of known packages (equivalent to apt-get update)</p>
     1645                        <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Edit Menu -&gt; <b>Reload Package Information</b></pre>
     1646                        </li><li><p align="left">To install all possible upgrades (equivalent to apt-get upgrade)</p>
     1647                        <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Edit Menu -&gt; <b>Mark All Upgrades...</b> -&gt; <b>Default Upgrade</b>
     1648
     1649Edit Menu -&gt; <b>Apply Marked Changes</b></pre>
     1650                        </li><li><p align="left">To search for a package (equivalent to apt-cache search package_name)</p>
     1651                        <pre class="program" dir="ltr">Edit Menu -&gt; Search... <b>Specify the package name</b></pre>
     1652                        </li><li><p align="left">To install the selected package (equivalent to apt-get install package_name)</p>
     1653                        <pre class="program" dir="ltr"><b>Select "package_name"</b>
     1654
     1655Package Menu -&gt; <b>Mark for Installation</b>
     1656Edit Menu -&gt; <b>Apply Marked Changes</b></pre>
     1657                        </li><li><p align="left">To remove installed package (equivalent to apt-get remove package_name)</p>
     1658                        <pre class="program" dir="ltr"><b>Select "package_name"</b>
     1659Package Menu -&gt; <b>Mark for Removal</b>
     1660
     1661Edit Menu -&gt; <b>Apply Marked Changes</b></pre>
     1662                </li></ol>
     1663        </li></ol>
     1664        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="installuninstalldebfile"></a>How to install/uninstall .deb files?</p>
     1665        <ol>
     1666                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1667
     1668                </li><li><p align="left">To install .deb file:</p>
     1669                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># dpkg -i package_file.deb</pre>
     1670                </li><li><p align="left">To uninstall .deb file</p>
     1671                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># dpkg -r package_name</pre>
     1672        </li></ol>
     1673        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="convertrpmtodebfile"></a>How to convert .rpm files to .deb files?</p>
     1674
     1675        <ol>
     1676                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1677                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     1678                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># alien package_file.rpm</pre>
     1679        </li></ol>
     1680        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="mvb"></a>How to rename all files in directory at once?</p>
     1681
     1682        <ol>
     1683                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1684                </li><li><p align="left">To install "mvb" file name renamer:</p>
     1685                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">$ wget -c <a href="http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/mvb_1.6.tgz">http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/mvb_1.6.tgz</a>
     1686# tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
     1687# chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/</pre>
     1688                </li><li><p align="left">To rename all files in directory at once:</p>
     1689
     1690                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">mvb NEW_NAME</pre>
     1691        </li></ol>
     1692        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="bbips"></a>How to manipulate all image files in directory at once?</p>
     1693        <ol>
     1694                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1695                </li><li><p align="left">To install bash batch image processing script: </p>
     1696
     1697                <ol>
     1698                        <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     1699<a href="#extrarepositories">                   </a></li><li><p align="left"><a href="#extrarepositories">Type the following command(s):</a></p>
     1700<a href="#extrarepositories">                   </a><pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"><a href="#extrarepositories">$ wget -c </a><a href="http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/bbips.0.3.2.sh">http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/bbips.0.3.2.sh</a>
     1701# cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
     1702# chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips</pre>
     1703                </li></ol>
     1704
     1705                </li><li><p align="left">To manipulate all image files in directory at once:</p>
     1706                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">bbips</pre>
     1707        </li></ol>
     1708        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="setsystem-wideenvironmentvariables"></a>How to set System-wide Environment Variables?</p>
     1709        <ol>
     1710                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1711
     1712                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1713                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/profile  /etc/profile_backup<br># gedit /etc/profile</pre>
     1714                </li><li><p align="left">Append the System-wide environment Variables at the end of file.</p>
     1715                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file</p>
     1716               
     1717                <p></p>
     1718        </li></ol>
     1719
     1720        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="savemanoutputs"></a>How to save "man" outputs into files?</p>
     1721        <ol>
     1722                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1723                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1724                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">$ man command | col -b &gt; file.txt</pre>
     1725
     1726        </li></ol>
     1727        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="hidegrub"></a>How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up?</p>
     1728        <ol>
     1729                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1730                </li><li><pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup<br>gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst</pre>
     1731                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1732
     1733                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>#hiddenmenu<br>...</pre>
     1734                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following line:</p>
     1735                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">hiddenmenu</pre>
     1736                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/menu.list_hidegrub">Sample</a>)
     1737               
     1738                </p>
     1739        </li></ol>
     1740
     1741        <p class="question"><a name="changetimeoutgrub"></a>How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up?</p>
     1742        <p class="question">For installed mode</p>
     1743        <ol>
     1744                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1745                </li><li><pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup<br>gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst</pre>
     1746
     1747                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1748                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>timeout 3<br>...</pre>
     1749                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following line:</p>
     1750                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">timeout X_seconds</pre>
     1751                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/menu.list_increasedecreasetimeoutgrub">Sample</a>)
     1752               
     1753                </p>
     1754
     1755        </li></ol>
     1756        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="changedefaultosgrub"></a>How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu?</p>
     1757        <ol>
     1758                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1759                </li><li><pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup<br>gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst</pre>
     1760                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1761
     1762                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>default 0<br>...</pre>
     1763                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following line:</p>
     1764                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">default X_sequence</pre>
     1765                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/menu.list_changedefaultosgrub">Sample</a>)
     1766               
     1767                </p>
     1768        </li></ol>
     1769
     1770        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="temporaryskipboot-upservices"></a>How to temporary skip boot-up services?</p>
     1771        <ol>
     1772                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1773                </li><li><p align="left">Press 'Ctrl + C'</p>
     1774        </li></ol>
     1775        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="permanentlydisableenableboot-upservices"></a>How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services?</p>
     1776
     1777        <ol>
     1778                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1779                </li><li><p align="left">To disable servive:</p>
     1780                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># chmod -x /etc/init.d/service_name</pre>
     1781                </li><li><p align="left">To re-enable service:</p>
     1782                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># chmod +x /etc/init.d/service_name</pre>
     1783
     1784        </li></ol>
     1785        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="cleantmpfoldershutdown"></a>How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown?</p>
     1786        <ol>
     1787                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1788                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1789                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup<br># gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd</pre>
     1790
     1791                </li><li><p align="left">Find these lines:</p>
     1792                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br> stop)<br> log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."<br> start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile<br> log_end_msg $?<br>...</pre>
     1793                </li><li><p align="left">Add the following line below it:</p>
     1794
     1795                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*</pre>
     1796                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/sysklogd_cleantmpfoldershutdown">Sample</a>)
     1797               
     1798                </p>
     1799        </li></ol>
     1800        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="scrollupdownconsole"></a>How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode?</p>
     1801        <ol>
     1802                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1803
     1804                </li><li><p align="left">To scroll up to view previously outputs:</p>
     1805                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">Press 'Shift + Page Up'</pre>
     1806                </li><li><p align="left">To scroll down to view previously outputs:</p>
     1807                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr">Press 'Shift + Page Down'</pre>
     1808        </li></ol>
     1809        <p><br>
     1810        </p>
     1811
     1812        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="geditauto"></a>How to enable "auto save" feature in gedit and disable creating backup (some_file~) files?</p>
     1813        <ol>
     1814                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1815                </li><li><p align="left">Click on  Applications
     1816                -&gt; System Tools -&gt; Configuration Editor
     1817                </p>
     1818
     1819                </li><li><p align="left">In  Configuration Editor
     1820               
     1821                </p>
     1822                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">/ -&gt; apps -&gt; gedit-2 -&gt; preferences -&gt; editor -&gt; save -&gt; create_backup_copy <b>(UnChecked)</b>
     1823
     1824/ -&gt; apps -&gt; gedit-2 -&gt; preferences -&gt; editor -&gt; save -&gt; auto_save <b>(Checked)</b></pre>
     1825        </li></ol>
     1826
     1827<p class="question" align="left"><a name="nauadd1"></a>How to temporary active nautilus location bar?</p>
     1828        <ol>
     1829                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1830                </li><li><p align="left">Click on  Places
     1831                -&gt; Home Folder
     1832                </p>
     1833                </li><li><p align="left">In  Home
     1834               
     1835                </p>
     1836
     1837                <pre class="program" dir="ltr"><b>Ctrl+L</b></pre>
     1838        </li></ol>
     1839<p class="question" align="left"><a name="nauadd2"></a>How to permanently active nautilus location bar?</p>
     1840        <ol>
     1841                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1842                </li><li><p align="left">Click on  Applications
     1843                -&gt; System Tools -&gt; Configuration Editor
     1844                </p>
     1845
     1846                </li><li><p align="left">In  Configuration Editor
     1847               
     1848                </p>
     1849                <pre class="program" dir="ltr">/-&gt; apps -&gt; nautilus -&gt; preferences -&gt; always_use_location_entry <b>(Checked)</b></pre>
     1850        </li></ol>
     1851
     1852        <hr>
     1853        <h2 align="left"><a name="sambaserver"></a>Samba Server</h2>
     1854        <hr>
     1855        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="installsamba"></a>How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</p>
     1856        <ol>
     1857                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1858
     1859                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1860                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># /etc/init.d/samba start</pre>
     1861        </li></ol>
     1862        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="addeditdeletenetworkusers"></a>How to add/edit/delete network users?</p>
     1863        <ol>
     1864                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1865
     1866                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1867                </li><li><p align="left">To add network user:</p>
     1868                <ol>
     1869                        <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#addeditdeletesystemusers">How to add/edit/delete system users?</a></p>
     1870                        </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1871                        <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># smbpasswd -a system_username<br># gedit /etc/samba/smbusers</pre>
     1872
     1873                        </li><li><p align="left">Insert the following line into the new file:</p>
     1874                        <pre class="file" dir="ltr">system_username = "network username"</pre>
     1875                        </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smbusers_addeditdeletenetworkusers">Sample</a>)                 
     1876                        </p>
     1877                </li></ol>
     1878                </li><li><p align="left">To edit network user:</p>
     1879                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># smbpasswd -a system_username</pre>
     1880
     1881                </li><li><p align="left">To delete network user:</p>
     1882                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># smbpasswd -x system_username</pre>
     1883        </li></ol>
     1884        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sharehomefoldersreadsecurityuser"></a>How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?</p>
     1885        <ol>
     1886                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1887
     1888                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1889                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1890                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup<br># gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
     1891                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1892                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>; security = user<br>...</pre>
     1893
     1894                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     1895                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> security = user<br> username map = /etc/samba/smbusers</pre>
     1896                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smb.conf_sharehomefoldersreadsecurityuser">Sample</a>)
     1897               
     1898                </p>
     1899                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#addeditdeletesystemusers">How to add/edit/delete system users?</a></p>
     1900
     1901                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1902                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># testparm<br># /etc/init.d/samba restart</pre>
     1903        </li></ol>
     1904        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sharehomefoldersreadwritesecurityuser"></a>How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?</p>
     1905        <ol>
     1906                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1907
     1908                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1909                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1910                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup<br>#gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
     1911                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1912                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>; security = user<br>...</pre>
     1913
     1914                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     1915                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> security = user<br> username map = /etc/samba/smbusers</pre>
     1916                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1917                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br># By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next<br># parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.<br> writable = no<br>...</pre>
     1918
     1919                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     1920                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"># By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next<br># parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.<br> writable = yes</pre>
     1921                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smb.conf_sharehomefoldersreadwritesecurityuser">Sample</a>)
     1922               
     1923                </p>
     1924                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#addeditdeletesystemusers">How to add/edit/delete system users?</a></p>
     1925
     1926                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     1927                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># testparm<br># /etc/init.d/samba restart</pre>
     1928        </li></ol>
     1929        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sharegroupfoldersreadsecurityuser"></a>How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?</p>
     1930        <ol>
     1931                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1932
     1933                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1934                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1935                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mkdir /home/group<br># chmod 777 /home/group/<br># cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup<br># gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
     1936                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1937                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>; security = user<br>...</pre>
     1938
     1939                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     1940                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> security = user<br> username map = /etc/samba/smbusers</pre>
     1941                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following lines at the end of file:</p>
     1942                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">[Group]<br> comment = Group Folder<br> path = /home/group<br> public = yes<br> writable = no<br> valid users = system_username1 system_username2<br> create mask = 0700<br> directory mask = 0700<br> force user = nobody<br> force group = nogroup</pre>
     1943
     1944                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smb.conf_sharegroupfoldersreadsecurityuser">Sample</a>)
     1945               
     1946                </p>
     1947                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#addeditdeletesystemusers">How to add/edit/delete system users?</a></p>
     1948                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1949                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># testparm<br># /etc/init.d/samba restart</pre>
     1950        </li></ol>
     1951
     1952        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sharegroupfoldersreadwritesecurityuser"></a>How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?</p>
     1953        <ol>
     1954                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1955                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1956                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1957
     1958                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mkdir /home/group<br># chmod 777 /home/group/<br># cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup<br># gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
     1959                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1960                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>; security = user<br>...</pre>
     1961                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     1962
     1963                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> security = user<br> username map = /etc/samba/smbusers</pre>
     1964                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following lines at the end of file:</p>
     1965                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">[Group]<br> comment = Group Folder<br> path = /home/group<br> public = yes<br> writable = yes<br> valid users = system_username1 system_username2<br> create mask = 0700<br> directory mask = 0700<br> force user = nobody<br> force group = nogroup</pre>
     1966
     1967                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smb.conf_sharegroupfoldersreadwritesecurityuser">Sample</a>)
     1968               
     1969                </p>
     1970                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#addeditdeletesystemusers">How to add/edit/delete system users?</a></p>
     1971                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1972                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># testparm<br># /etc/init.d/samba restart</pre>
     1973        </li></ol>
     1974
     1975        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sharepublicfoldersreadsecurityuser"></a>How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?</p>
     1976        <ol>
     1977                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     1978                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     1979                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1980
     1981                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mkdir /home/public<br># chmod 777 /home/public/<br># cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup<br># gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
     1982                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     1983                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>; security = user<br>...</pre>
     1984                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     1985
     1986                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> security = user<br> username map = /etc/samba/smbusers</pre>
     1987                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following lines at the end of file:</p>
     1988                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">[public]<br> comment = Public Folder<br> path = /home/public<br> public = yes<br> writable = no<br> create mask = 0777<br> directory mask = 0777<br> force user = nobody<br> force group = nogroup</pre>
     1989
     1990                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smb.conf_sharepublicfoldersreadsecurityuser">Sample</a>)
     1991               
     1992                </p>
     1993                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#addeditdeletesystemusers">How to add/edit/delete system users?</a></p>
     1994                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     1995                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># testparm<br># /etc/init.d/samba restart</pre>
     1996        </li></ol>
     1997
     1998        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sharepublicfoldersreadwritesecurityuser"></a>How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?</p>
     1999        <ol>
     2000                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2001                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     2002                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2003
     2004                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mkdir /home/public<br># chmod 777 /home/public/<br># cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup<br>#gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
     2005                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     2006                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>; security = user<br>...</pre>
     2007                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     2008
     2009                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> security = user<br> username map = /etc/samba/smbusers</pre>
     2010                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following lines at the end of file:</p>
     2011                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">[public]<br> comment = Public Folder<br> path = /home/public<br> public = yes<br> writable = yes<br> create mask = 0777<br> directory mask = 0777<br> force user = nobody<br> force group = nogroup</pre>
     2012
     2013                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smb.conf_sharepublicfoldersreadwritesecurityuser">Sample</a>)
     2014               
     2015                </p>
     2016                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#addeditdeletesystemusers">How to add/edit/delete system users?</a></p>
     2017                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2018                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># testparm<br># /etc/init.d/samba restart</pre>
     2019        </li></ol>
     2020
     2021        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sharepublicfoldersreadsecurityshare"></a>How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)?</p>
     2022        <ol>
     2023                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2024                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     2025                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2026
     2027                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mkdir /home/public<br># chmod 777 /home/public/<br># cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup<br># gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
     2028                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     2029                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>; security = user<br>...</pre>
     2030                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     2031
     2032                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> security = share</pre>
     2033                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following lines at the end of file:</p>
     2034                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">[public]<br> comment = Public Folder<br> path = /home/public<br> public = yes<br> writable = no<br> create mask = 0777<br> directory mask = 0777<br> force user = nobody<br> force group = nogroup</pre>
     2035
     2036                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smb.conf_sharepublicfoldersreadsecurityshare">Sample</a>)
     2037               
     2038                </p>
     2039                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># testparm<br># /etc/init.d/samba restart</pre>
     2040        </li></ol>
     2041        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sharepublicfoldersreadwritesecurityshare"></a>How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)?</p>
     2042        <ol>
     2043                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2044
     2045                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installsamba">How to start Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?</a></p>
     2046                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># mkdir /home/public<br># chmod 777 /home/public/<br># cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup<br># gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
     2047                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     2048                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>; security = user<br>...</pre>
     2049
     2050                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     2051                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"> security = share</pre>
     2052                </li><li><p align="left">Append the following lines at the end of file:</p>
     2053                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">[public]<br> comment = Public Folder<br> path = /home/public<br> public = yes<br> writable = yes<br> create mask = 0777<br> directory mask = 0777<br> force user = nobody<br> force group = nogroup</pre>
     2054
     2055                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/smb.conf_sharepublicfoldersreadwritesecurityshare">Sample</a>)
     2056               
     2057                </p>
     2058                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2059                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># testparm<br># /etc/init.d/samba restart</pre>
     2060        </li></ol>
     2061        <p><br>
     2062        </p>
     2063
     2064        <hr>
     2065        <h2 align="left"><a name="sshserver"></a>SSH Server</h2>
     2066        <hr>
     2067        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sshintoparsix"></a>How to SSH into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine?</p>
     2068        <ol>
     2069                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2070
     2071                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine have installed SSH Server service<br>Read <a href="#installssh">How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?</a>
     2072Remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine: 192.168.0.1</pre>
     2073
     2074                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     2075                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ ssh username@192.168.0.1</pre>
     2076        </li></ol>
     2077        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="scpfromparsix"></a>How to copy files/folders from remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine into local machine (scp)?</p>
     2078
     2079        <ol>
     2080                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2081                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine have installed SSH Server service<br>Read <a href="#installssh">How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?</a>
     2082Remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine: 192.168.0.1
     2083Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
     2084Local machine save location: . (current directory)</pre>
     2085                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     2086
     2087                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .</pre>
     2088        </li></ol>
     2089        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="scptoparsix"></a>How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine (scp)?</p>
     2090        <ol>
     2091                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2092                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine have installed SSH Server service<br>Read <a href="#installssh">How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?</a>
     2093
     2094Remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine: 192.168.0.1
     2095emote Parsix GNU/Linux machine save location: /home/username/</pre>
     2096                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     2097                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/</pre>
     2098        </li></ol>
     2099        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="rsyncfromparsix"></a>How to copy files/folders from remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine into local machine (rsync)?</p>
     2100        <ol>
     2101                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2102
     2103                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine have installed SSH Server service<br>Read <a href="#installssh">How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?</a>
     2104Remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine: 192.168.0.1
     2105Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
     2106Local machine save location: . (current directory)</pre>
     2107                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     2108                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .</pre>
     2109        </li></ol>
     2110        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="rsynctoparsix"></a>How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine (rsync)?</p>
     2111
     2112        <ol>
     2113                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2114                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine have installed SSH Server service<br>Read <a href="#installssh">How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?</a>
     2115Remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine: 192.168.0.1
     2116emote Parsix GNU/Linux machine save location: /home/username/</pre>
     2117                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     2118
     2119                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/</pre>
     2120        </li></ol>
     2121        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="sshfromwindows"></a>How to SSH into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine via Windows machine?</p>
     2122        <ol>
     2123                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2124                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine have installed SSH Server service<br>Read <a href="#installssh">How to SSH into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine?</a></pre>
     2125
     2126                </li><li><p align="left">Download PuTTY: <a href="http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/putty.exe">here</a>.</p>
     2127        </li></ol>
     2128        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="scpfromwindows"></a>How to copy files/folders from/into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine via Windows machine?</p>
     2129        <ol>
     2130                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2131
     2132                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine have installed SSH Server service<br>Read <a href="#installssh">How to SSH into remote Parsix GNU/Linux machine?</a></pre>
     2133                </li><li><p align="left">Download WinSCP: <a href="http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/winscp374setupintl.exe">here</a>.</p>
     2134        </li></ol>
     2135        <p><br>
     2136        </p>
     2137        <hr>
     2138
     2139        <h2 align="left"><a name="dhcpserver"></a>DHCP Server</h2>
     2140        <hr>
     2141        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="installdhcpserver"></a>How to install DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment?</p>
     2142        <ol>
     2143                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2144                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     2145
     2146                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card<br>IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200<br>Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0<br>DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5<br>Domains: tm.net.my<br>Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1</pre>
     2147                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2148                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># apt-get install dhcp3-server<br># cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup<br>#gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server</pre>
     2149                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     2150
     2151                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br>INTERFACES=""</pre>
     2152                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     2153                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">INTERFACES="eth0"</pre>
     2154                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/dhcp3-server_installdhcpserver">Sample</a>)
     2155               
     2156                </p>
     2157                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2158
     2159                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup<br># gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf</pre>
     2160                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     2161                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br># option definitions common to all supported networks...<br>option domain-name "example.org";<br>option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;<br>default-lease-time 600;<br>max-lease-time 7200;<br>...</pre>
     2162                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     2163
     2164                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"># option definitions common to all supported networks...<br>#option domain-name "example.org";<br>#option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;<br>#default-lease-time 600;<br>#max-lease-time 7200;</pre>
     2165                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     2166                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">...<br># A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.<br>#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {<br># range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;<br># option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;<br># option domain-name "internal.example.org";<br># option routers 10.5.5.1;<br># option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;<br># default-lease-time 600;<br># max-lease-time 7200;<br>#}<br>...</pre>
     2167
     2168                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     2169                <pre class="file" dir="ltr"># A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.<br>subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {<br> range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;<br> option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;<br> option domain-name "tm.net.my";<br> option routers 192.168.0.1;<br> option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;<br> default-lease-time 600;<br> max-lease-time 7200;<br>}</pre>
     2170
     2171                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/dhcpd.conf_installdhcpserver">Sample</a>)
     2172               
     2173                </p>
     2174                </li><li><p align="left">Type the  following command(s):</p>
     2175                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart</pre>
     2176        </li></ol>
     2177        <p><br>
     2178        </p>
     2179
     2180        <hr>
     2181        <h2 align="left"><a name="databaseserver"></a>Database Server</h2>
     2182        <hr>
     2183        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="installmysqldatabaseserver"></a>How to install MYSQL Database Server?</p>
     2184        <ol>
     2185                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2186
     2187                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     2188                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2189                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install mysql-server<br># mysqladmin -u root password db_user_password</pre>
     2190        </li></ol>
     2191        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="installmysqlcontrolcenter"></a>How to install MYSQL Control Center?</p>
     2192        <ol>
     2193
     2194                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2195                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     2196                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installmysqldatabaseserver">How to install MYSQL Database Server?</a></p>
     2197                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2198                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install mysqlcc<br># gedit /usr/share/applications/MySQLCC.desktop</pre>
     2199
     2200                </li><li><p align="left">Insert the following lines into the new file:</p>
     2201                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">[Desktop Entry]<br>Name=MySQLCC<br>Comment=MySQLCC<br>Exec=mysqlcc<br>Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/mysqlcc.xpm<br>Terminal=false<br>Type=Application<br>Categories=Application;System;</pre>
     2202                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/MySQLCC.desktop_installmysqlcontrolcenter">Sample</a>)
     2203               
     2204                </p>
     2205
     2206                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#refreshgnomepanel">How to refresh GNOME panel?</a></p>
     2207                </li><li><p align="left">Click onApplications
     2208                -&gt; System Tools -&gt; MySQLCC
     2209                </p>
     2210        </li></ol>
     2211        <hr>
     2212        <h2 align="left"><a name="apachehttpserver"></a>Apache HTTP Server</h2>
     2213
     2214        <hr>
     2215        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="installapachehttpserver"></a>How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?</p>
     2216        <ol>
     2217                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2218                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     2219                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2220
     2221                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install apache2 or apt-get install apache</pre>
     2222                </li><li><p align="left">Type in GNU Iceweasel location bar:    http://localhost </p>
     2223        </li></ol>
     2224        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="installphpapache"></a>How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?</p>
     2225        <ol>
     2226                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2227
     2228                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     2229                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installapachehttpserver">How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?</a></p>
     2230                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install php4 or apt-get install php5<br># gedit /var/www/testphp.php</pre>
     2231                </li><li><p align="left">Insert the following lines into the new file:</p>
     2232                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">&lt;?php phpinfo(); ?&gt;</pre>
     2233
     2234                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/testphp.php_installphpapache">Sample</a>)
     2235               
     2236                </p>
     2237                </li><li><p align="left">Type in GNU Iceweasel location bar:    http://localhost/testphp.php</p>
     2238        </li></ol>
     2239        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="installmysqlapache"></a>How to install MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server?</p>
     2240        <ol>
     2241                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2242
     2243                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#extrarepositories">How to add extra repositories?</a></p>
     2244                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installapachehttpserver">How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?</a></p>
     2245                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installphpapache">How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?</a></p>
     2246                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installmysqldatabaseserver">How to install MYSQL Database Server?</a></p>
     2247                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql or apt-get install libapache-mod-auth-mysql<br># apt-get install php4-mysql or apt-get install php5-mysql<br># /etc/init.d/apache2 restart or apachectl restart</pre>
     2248
     2249        </li></ol>
     2250        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="mapURLstofoldersoutsidewww"></a>How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/?</p>
     2251        <ol>
     2252                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2253                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installapachehttpserver">How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?</a></p>
     2254                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2255
     2256                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias or gedit /etc/apache/httpd.conf</pre>
     2257                </li><li><p align="left">Insert the following lines into the new file:</p>
     2258                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/<br>&lt;directory /location_of_folder/&gt;<br> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks<br> AllowOverride All<br> Order allow,deny<br> Allow from all<br>&lt;/directory&gt;</pre>
     2259
     2260                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/alias_mapURLstofoldersoutsidewww">Sample</a>)
     2261               
     2262                </p>
     2263                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># /etc/init.d/apache2 restart</pre>
     2264                </li><li><p align="left">Type in GNU Iceweasel location bar:    http://localhost/URL-path</p>
     2265                <p></p>
     2266        </li></ol>
     2267        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="changeportnumberapache"></a>How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server?</p>
     2268
     2269        <ol>
     2270                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2271                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installapachehttpserver">How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?</a></p>
     2272                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">.g. Assumed that new port number is 78.</pre>
     2273                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2274
     2275                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"># cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup<br># gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf</pre>
     2276                </li><li><p align="left">Find this line:</p>
     2277                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">Listen 80</pre>
     2278                </li><li><p align="left">Replace with the following lines:</p>
     2279                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">Listen 78</pre>
     2280                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/ports.conf_changeportnumberapache">Sample</a>)
     2281               
     2282                </p>
     2283
     2284                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2285                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># /etc/init.d/apache2 restart</pre>
     2286                </li><li><p align="left">Type in GNU Iceweasel location bar:    http://localhost:78</p>
     2287        </li></ol>
     2288        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="parserssintophpapache"></a>How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server?</p>
     2289        <ol>
     2290                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2291
     2292                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installapachehttpserver">How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?</a></p>
     2293                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#installphpapache">How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?</a></p>
     2294                </li><li><pre class="description" style="text-align: left;">e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News.</pre>
     2295                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2296                <pre class="terminal" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr">$ wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz<br># mkdir /var/www/feeds<br># tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/<br># mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/<br># rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/<br># chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/<br># gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php</pre>
     2297
     2298                </li><li><p align="left">In sert the following lines into the new file:</p>
     2299                <pre class="file" dir="ltr">&lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"&gt;<br>&lt;html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en"&gt;<br>&lt;head&gt;<br>&lt;title&gt;DistroWatch.com - News&lt;/title&gt;<br>&lt;meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/&gt;<br>&lt;style type="text/css"&gt;<br>/*&lt;![CDATA[*/<br>/* <br>DEFAULT TAG STYLES<br>*/<br>body {<br> background: #ffffff;<br> margin-left: 20px;<br> font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;<br> font-size: 9pt;<br>}<br>h1 {<br> font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;<br> font-size: 15pt;<br>}<br>/*]]&gt;*/<br>&lt;/style&gt;<br>&lt;/head&gt;<br>&lt;body&gt;<br>&lt;?php<br>Require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';<br>error_reporting(E_ERROR);<br>$url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';<br>$rss = fetch_rss($url);<br>if ($rss) {<br> echo "&lt;h1&gt;";<br> echo "&lt;a href=$url&gt;", $rss-&gt;channel[title], "&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br/&gt;";<br> echo "&lt;/h1&gt;";<br> foreach ($rss-&gt;items as $item ) {<br> $url = $item[link];<br> $title = $item[title];<br> $description = $item[description];<br> echo "&lt;li&gt;";<br> echo "&lt;b&gt;Topic:&lt;/b&gt; &lt;a href=$url&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;u&gt;$title&lt;/u&gt;&lt;/b&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br/&gt;&lt;br/&gt;";<br> echo "$description&lt;br/&gt;&lt;br/&gt;";<br> echo "&lt;/li&gt;";<br> }<br>}<br>else {<br> echo "&lt;a href=$url&gt;", $url, "&lt;/a&gt; - Server Down!&lt;br/&gt;";<br>}<br>?&gt;<br>&lt;/body&gt;<br>&lt;/html&gt;</pre>
     2300
     2301                </li><li><p align="left">Save the edited file (<a href="sample/index.php_parserssintophpapache">Sample</a>)
     2302               
     2303                </p>
     2304                </li><li><p align="left">Type in GNU Iceweasel location bar: http://localhost/feeds/index.php</p>
     2305        </li></ol>
     2306        <hr>
     2307        <h2 align="left"><a name="troubleshooting"></a>Troubleshooting</h2>
     2308        <hr>
     2309
     2310        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="configuringnetwoktooslow"></a>Configuring network interfaces... (taking too long to load)</p>
     2311        <ol>
     2312                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2313                </li><li><p align="left">Read <a href="#temporaryskipboot-upservices">How to temporary skip boot-up services?</a></p>
     2314        </li></ol>
     2315        <p class="question" align="left"><a name="forcefullyemptytrash"></a>How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME?</p>
     2316
     2317        <ol>
     2318                <li><p align="left">Read <a href="#generalnotes">General Notes</a>.</p>
     2319                </li><li><p align="left">Type the following command(s):</p>
     2320                <pre class="terminal" dir="ltr"># rm -fr ~/.local/share/Trash</pre>
     2321        </li></ol>
     2322</div>
     2323}}}